The importance of automation and robots in most manufacturing industries is growing. Industrial robots have replaced human beings in a wide variety of industries. Robots beat humans in jobs that want precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and place), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are utilized in a diverse range of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.
The ISO concept of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. In accordance with the definition it could be fixed in position or mobile for usage in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in 3 or more axes. These are multi-functional pieces of equipment that may be custom-built and developed to perform a variety of operations.
The most important benefits associated with industrial robots is they may be designed to suit industry specific requirements which enable it to work continuously for a long time, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. The cost-effective life time of an industrial robot is concerning 12-16 years. This can persistent accuracy industrial robots are becoming variety part of manufacturing.
Industrial robots has sorted out into different categories depending on their mechanical structure. The major types of industrial robots are:
Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They are stationary robots having three components of motion. They work from an overhead grid using a rectangular work envelope. These are mainly employed to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots have their axes over the work making them also perfect for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes to move. They move inside an x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are used for factory automation requiring pick and set work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It may have from two to 10 or even more interactive joints. Articulated robots are well suitable for welding, painting and assembly.
Basic industrial robot designs may be customized by having different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are crucial add-ons. End effectors include the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached to robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches that are used to move or assemble parts are types of end effectors. End effectors are created and utilized to sense and communicate with the external environment. The end effectors’ design is determined by the applying requirements from the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. They are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks utilized to control other manufacturing equipment for example robotic arms. Machine vision is used for your inspection of product which such as semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are used to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.
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